BMJ open. 2022 Apr 26;12(4):e058464. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-058464.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment, hearing impairment and dual sensory impairment (DSI) as a combination of visual and hearing impairment, in association with cognitive dysfunction in a population aged 85 years and older.
METHODS: The Very Old Urals cross-sectional population study, conducted in rural and urban Bashkortostan, Russia, between 2017 and 2020, included a detailed ocular and systemic examination with assessment of moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI ) / blindness (best-corrected visual acuity
SETTING: A rural and urban area of Bashkortostan, Russia.
PARTICIPANTS: Of 1882 eligible people aged 85 and over, 1526 (81.1%) people participated.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of vision, hearing and DSI and cognitive dysfunction.
RESULTS: The study included 731 (47.9%) individuals (mean age 88.1 ± 2.7 years; median 87 years, range 85-98 years) with measures of MSVI/blindness, MSHL and function cognitive. The prevalence of MSVI/blindness, MSHL, DSI and dementia was 51.8% (95% CI 48.2% to 55.5%), 33.1% (95% CI 29.7% to 36, 5%), 20.5% (95% CI 17.8% to 23.5%) and 48.2% (95% CI 44.5% to 51.8%), respectively. A lower cognitive function score was associated with lower visual acuity (p
CONCLUSIONS: In this very elderly multiethnic population from Russia, DSI (prevalence 20.5%), compared to hearing impairment (OR 2.18) and visual impairment alone (OR 2.09), had a stronger association strong (OR 2.80) with dementia. The results show the importance of hearing and visual impairments, in particular their combined occurrence, for the prevalence of dementia in an elderly population.